Juno was launched into space in 2011. In 2016, it entered Jupiter's orbit. Since then, Juno passed the planet 37 times and collected data from below its cloud deck thanks to the spacecraft's microwave radiometer (MWR).
With the help of MWR, scientists were able to investigate the structure of one of Jupiter's most visible vortex storms, the Great Red Spot. This vortex was first noticed almost two centuries ago and is wider than the Earth. Scientists found out that it extends up to 350-500 km below the clouds, beyond the level at which the water condenses, and dense clouds are formed.
Scientists have also discovered a relationship between the vortices' rotation direction and their temperature in the planet's atmosphere. Cyclones are warmer at the top and colder at the bottom, while anticyclones are colder at the top and warmer at the bottom.
The planet is also known for its belts and zones, white and reddish stripes of clouds that wrap around Jupiter. Scientists do not know how they are precisely formed, but collected data suggests that ammonia gas may have to do with their formation.